Nicole Purin, that loves Active Astrology, is a very important lawer, Legal Counsel Wholesale Banking Legal, Middle East, Pakistan & Africa, at the highest levels of the law and the economy in the world. She has just written a very interesting article on the International crisis after the nuclear disaster of Fukushima. Kindly she has permitted to us publishing it.
Enjoy it and best wishes to Nicole:
ECONOMICS & POLICY
Executive Insight - Standard Chartered
By Nicole Purin on May 05, 2011
Tenets of nuclear vision in the GCC
The nuclear energy debate has become a central discussion point for governments worldwide in light of the recent events at the Fukushima plant in Japan.
As anti-nuclear movements gain momentum, the spectres of Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have re-emerged and forced authorities in industrialized nations to reconsider the safety and strategy of their atomic energy programs. Emerging nuclear nations keen to explore nuclear energy are also reviewing their programs, with security and transparency becoming the fundamental tenets of a nation’s nuclear vision.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) say Gulf Cooperation Council countries have expressed a strong interest in the development of nuclear power programs, due to their depletion of hydrocarbon resources, increased energy demand due to population growth, diversification of electricity, higher demand for desalinated water, and climate change considerations.
Currently nuclear power programs in the GCC are in embryonic form — with the exception of the United Arab Emirates, whose nuclear plans are at a considerably advanced stage. Nonetheless, for Gulf countries the first-time construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the implementation of a nuclear power program is complex, particularly from a legal and regulatory angle, given the required nuclear safety culture and disaster preparedness.
The ideal nuclear state
A state preparing itself for a nuclear program must demonstrate to the IAEA, the international community and its citizens that it is nurturing a transparent and safe nuclear process. Striking the right balance between the international and national nuclear supply chain and the selection of reactor technology are critical elements for any peaceful nuclear program development.
Arguably the most important factor is the implementation of a comprehensive national regulatory and legislative framework specific to nuclear power and application of international nuclear instruments within a country’s legislative framework. A national nuclear law must provide for the establishment of an independent regulatory authority, set out the licensing and permission authorities and security and disaster parameters. The transportation of radioactive materials, decommissioning, waste management and spent fuel disposal should be comprehensively covered in the national legislative provisions.
Finally, hand-in-hand with a solid national nuclear law is the adoption by the prospective nuclear state of international instruments to ensure the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, harmonization of safety standards internationally and regionally, and an international third party liability structure.
UAE Nuclear legislative and regulatory framework
UAE policy documents have stated the country’s rulers regards nuclear power as an energy source that is a “proven, environmentally promising and commercially competitive option.” It has successfully introduced a comprehensive legislative and regulatory infrastructure as evidenced by the passing of Federal Law by Decree No. (6) of 2009, ‘Concerning the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy’, which came into effect in September 2009 (called the Nuclear Law); Law No. (21) of 2009 Establishing the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation issued in 20 December 2009 (called the ENEC Law), and Federal Law No. (24) of 1999 for the Protection and Development of the Environment, issued in October 1999.
The Nuclear Law provides the foundations for developing a civilian nuclear power program. In accordance with the parameters set out above, it established the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR) to regulate and license the nuclear sector, including NPPs, construction, design location and operation, as well as the regulation of radioactive materials.
Transparency and safety are its core values, to be achieved through the issuance of regulations ensuring that the nuclear facility is safe and compliant with the regulatory framework. In addition, it is developing inspection and control regimes and most significantly, determination of civil and criminal penalties in accordance with the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities ratified by the UAE.
The Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC) was established with the ENEC Law. It is an Abu Dhabi government-owned corporate entity responsible for developing nuclear power and as an operator, it retains ultimate responsibility on nuclear security and the prevention of disasters.
As evidenced by the measures described, the UAE has adhered to a stringent national process for the development of nuclear power. In addition, it has adopted all major international treaties, conventions and protocols regarding nuclear power, namely the Treaty of Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Comprehensive Safeguard Agreement; Additional Protocol to CSA, the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and the liability conventions (Vienna convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and ancillary conventions). In essence, the liability conventions provide the liability regime for third-party nuclear damage.
A country needs to ensure that the principles of these conventions is categorically applied specifically as set out in the report prepared by the UAE government in fulfilment of Article 5 of the Convention of Nuclear Safety (5th Review April 2011) to ensure the channelling of the entire legal responsibility for nuclear damage exclusively towards the operator, the possibility of establishing the operator’s liability without having to prove negligence (strict liability concept), the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of countries where the nuclear accident occurs and the limitation of the amount of liability, and the possibility of setting a time limit for such a liability.
Nuclear safety and transparency
It appears that the UAE has demonstrated a strong commitment to nuclear safety. A UAE delegation has presented its nuclear safety plans at a convention in Vienna (the CNS 5th Review Meeting presided by Ambassador Al Ka’abi, the UAE’s Permanent Representative at IAEA). This is part of a three-year review meeting where a country’s safety regime is presented and reviewed by other countries. The UAE participation in this review process is commendable as it is designed to enhance the UAE program’s safety measures through constructive dialogue with other states and the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents, as well as Fukushima.
No turning back
It is anticipated that the first commercial nuclear power plant will be operational in the UAE by 2017, with the contract to supply and construct the first four reactors awarded to a South Korean consortium, led by KEPCO. The UAE “nuclear parameters” — firmly anchored and the country’s stable political and geological situations — make it a suitable candidate for the development of a peaceful nuclear program.
In addition, the UAE nuclear plan is a sound model for the Middle East as a whole and a catalyst for the Gulf’s energy integration model and harmonization of the region’s nuclear laws. Saudi Arabia has been following in the UAE’s footsteps and has adopted a royal decree (passed in 2010) laying the foundations of the King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy. Kuwait has also expressed a desire to build nuclear plants by 2020.
Nuclear development in the GCC is running at an unprecedented pace, but it is important not to forget that the evolution of the nuclear infrastructure in novel countries is confounded by difficulties as a result of the diverse regulatory, political and geological landscapes. A fine balance is required between each country’s individual approach and requirements to nuclear and the essential tenets of the nuclear development process.
NICOLE PURIN is legal counsel for wholesale banking legal,
for the Middle East, Pakistan and Africa, at Standard Chartered
Tre "Pillole" sui pianeti retrogradi:
Per Luigi Galli che scrive: "Caro Ciro, approvo appieno quanto affermi nella 'pillola' su Francesco Waldner. Alle tue parole aggiungerei solo che molti astrologi, oggi, negano l'efficacia delle RSM per non avallare la tua superiorità in questo campo e per invidia".
Caro Luigi, a me interessa, prima di ogni altra cosa, di ricevere la stima di persone come te, poi quella di migliaia di fan in tutto il mondo e mi interessa zero quella di colleghi mediocri e sempre occupati a parlare male di me (dovrebbero essere felici che un loro connazionale innalza la gloria dell'Astrologia Italiana nel mondo, ma quando si è troppo stupidi...).
Per Giuseppe Al Rami che scrive: "A ciò che dice Luigi Galli io aggiungerei: superficialità.
Come si spiegherebbe altrimenti che col metodo in questione siamo in grado di datare gli avvenimenti (prove alla mano)?
Se posso permettermi, colgo la palla al balzo per proporvi questa dimostrazione di datazione degli eventi:http://alramiastrologo.blogspot.com/2011/05/la-datazione-degli-eventi.html
come lo spiegano?
Non lo spiegano. Complimenti, Giuseppe, per l'ottimo esercizio di astrologia previsionale, pratica, utile e non fumosa.
Per Pina Grasso che scrive: "Ciro, sono felice, ho già prenotato 'hotel Jaccarino',la bella cosa è che anche i miei 'gioeilli', Paola e Giovanni, verranno con me....52648950 Abbracci, e un affettuoso saluto Al Rami. Pina Grasso".
Bene, Pina, così, con tua figlia avremo, spero, anche un po' di cabaret...
Per Halfpear che scrive: "Gentile Sig. Discepolo, sono nuovo del blog, complimeti per la chirezza interpretativa riguardo il Tema Natale del Presidente degli Stati Uniti.
Sono medico, sono nato ed abito a RImini, potrei sapere dove potrei trascorrere il mio prossimo compleanno? L'Anno passato sono stato a Rimini, non è stato un gran che!!
Non sono sposato, sono single senza figli..
Potrebbe trovarmi per gentilezza un luogo idoneo per me?
Qui sul blog ci diamo tutti del tu.
Ti aiuterò volentieri, ma se ci manderai i tuoi dati completi di nascita, la ASR verrà meglio.
Per Tutti. Tra ieri e oggi c'è stato uno tsunami mondiale sui blog di Google. I danni sono stati ingenti. A noi è sparito del tutto il blog di ieri e credo anche diversi messaggi che ci avevate inviato e che vi preghiamo di rimandare se non vi ho risposto oggi.
Resta da dire, però, che Google è sempre il Numero Uno!
Buona Giornata a Tutti.